Green Energy



What is Green Energy?


Apart from petroleum fuels, we can also use renewable energy i.e. green energy for power generation and other industrial uses.

Green energy is a sustainable energy source that never destroys environment and human health.
Green Energy
Solar Energy as a Green Energy Source
Green energy is produce from natural sources such as the plants, sun, wind, and water.

We know that the cost of fuel is increasing due to the endlessly population rise and the increase in population increases the need of conventional fuels i.e. petroleum based fuels.

These fuels will be end soon and there will be nothing left for our coming generation.

In such condition, people starts to search secondary sources of energy and that's why green energy appears, which are alternatives of conventional energy sources like coal, petroleum and natural gas.


Advantages of green energy


Green energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, water energy, bio-fuels, etc are renewable and have regenerating capabilities. These can’t be extinct from earth and always available for us.

Green energy sources do not emit greenhouse gases, and hence have fewer side effects on the environment.

Green energy solutions are entirely free and are easily available.

Green energy don’t have the control of any country or commercial organization like oil, gas or nuclear fuels. Thus, they are easily accessible and are cost efficient.

Green energy options are easily available in whole world; which includes areas present in remote conditions.


One of the type of green energy is Bio Fuels. More about it you can read in my previous article; "What is Biofuel".

Conclusion


The requirement for energy has raised in the world because of increase in population. This increase in energy demand can be met by green energy options. Green energy is the only solutions for good health of people and it also reduces global warming.


What is Biofuel


What is Biofuel?


Biofuel is a fuel which is generated from renewable biomass materials i.e. from plant material or animal waste.
Biofuel
Biofuel

Types of Biofuels


There are two most commonly used types of biofuels;

Ethanol – Ethanol is produced by the fermentation of grains or from agricultural waste, wooden chips, and paper waste.

Ethanol also be prepared by gasification where high temperatures or low-oxygen conditions converts biomass into synthesis gas. Then further this synthesis gas converted into ethanol.

Mostly ethanol is combined with gasoline for increasing amount of present octane and decreasing the emissions of carbon monoxide.

Ethanol emits near about or less then 15% greenhouse gas when it is burnt as compare to other pure gasoline fuels.

That’s why we can see some of the motor vehicles run on E85 fuel, which is an secondary fuel with high ethanol present.

Biodiesel – Biodiesel is produced by a coalition of alcohol with re-cycled cooking grease or fats or vegetable oriented oils.

Biodiesel is ignitable and is in the form of liquid, it burns promptly upon mixing with diesel which is produced from petroleum.

Biodiesel can be used in diesel engines but biodiesel produces harmful emissions like carbon monoxide.

Biobutanol 
– Biobutanol is an isobutanol derived from algae or bacteria same like derivation of biodiesel, or many times by fermentation of biomass fuel like ethanol.

Because of presence of high octane levels, it decreases any loss in fuel mileage while driving.

Advantages of Biofuels

  • Biofuels are generated from the renewable resources.
  • Less pollutant emissions are generated from biofuels.
  • Biofuels are cost effective solution for fuel, as compared to fossil fuels.
  • Less greenhouses gas generated from it.

Biofuel Applications

  • Mostly used for transportation.
  • Biofuel cells powers medical devices such as glucose bio-sensors.
  • It can be used to take out organic compounds from the waste stream.
  • It can be used as a heating fuel i.e.“bioheat”.

Conclusion

Biofuels are cheapest fuel solution. It emits less pollution and safe for environment. It is a best alternative for petroleum based fuels.

What Affects Oil Prices


What Determines Oil Prices?


Oil plays an important role not only in industries, aviation and transportation, it also decides the economy of the country. That’s why government of the country and central banking institute of that country always keep one eye on the oil prices.

But one question is there, how the price of oil is determined?

Like price of most of the commodities, the price of oil also results from the interaction between the supply and the demand.

There are some external and internal factors related to the country which also influences the demand and supply of the oil.

What Determines Oil Prices
What Affects Oil Prices

Let we understand these terms in detail;

Supply

There are different types of the oil grades and production of these oil grades are carried out in different countries and in different economical environment of that country.

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is the organization of 12 countries which produces oil and which deals with more then 45% of oil production globally.

That’s why OPEC directly influence the oil price by controlling the oil production i.e. less oil production rises oil demand and hence increase oil prices.

The supply of oil is also affected by the situations under which the production of oil happens for example; environmental regulations imposed by government agencies and geographical condition which are difficult for production of the oil. These conditions increases the cost of production.


Demand

Economy of the world decides the oil requirement. The countries which are developing very fast, increases demand of oil. Also, population factor also responsible for oil demand.

Weather and environment of that particular country also decides the demand.

Demand also depends on the countries financial environment and political conditions. Let understand these factors;


Political factors

The countries where the political conditions are not good and always under civil war and other political conflicts have negative effect on oil supply and demand.

Same like with whether conditions like drought and severe flood also varies demand.


Finance market factor

Many organizations defend themselves against to price fluctuations with finance market activities i.e. by trading the oil in the finance market. These companies use to bet on oil prices and it makes them profit. This shows a price change for short duration but not permanent.

Conclusion

Now we understood some of the factors which decides the price of oil in the market. Most of the things happen in the market is just for earning profit. Oil is in demand and no one want to miss the opportunity to earn profit from it.

How oil is formed

How oil is formed?


We know that, we usually extract oil from oceans and many time question rises in mind, how oil is formed? Let understand oil formation in detail.

How oil is formed - a short answer?


In sedimentary ocean basins, the oil and gas normally forms. Organic plant and animal material which is called as dead plankton gets deposited along with mud, sand and other natural sediments. In this initial stage the plankton/sediment layer is named as sapropel. With the rise in temperature the sapropel is converted into the kerogen. With the increase in temperature and more sediment pressure the kerogen converts to petroleum. This formed oil further trapped in sandstone reservoir.
Oil rig for oil extraction
Oil rig for oil extraction

Oil formation in detail


  • The beginning of formation of fossil fuel started at approximately 400 million years ago.

  • Dead plankton i.e. organic plant and animal materials sinks to the floor of ocean and gets deposited.

  • A fine mud also mixed with sinked plankton at the ocean floor. The resulting sediment because of plankton, mud and anaerobic bacteria is further called as sapropel.

  • Many layers of new sediments buried the sapropel, which increases the pressure of sapropel and rise the temperature of the sapropel layer.

  • With the help of anaerobic bacteria and chemical processes, at approx. 50°C the sapropel is converted into the kerogen.

  • Because of tectonic movements in the basin, the sediment layers get folded. Now more sediments fall on top of kerogen, this increases the pressure and temperature on the kerogen.

  • At 80°C to 120°C the kerogen converts into liquid petroleum.

  • The oil came out from of the kerogen into sandstone reservoir which is also called as storage beds.

  • Natural gas forms in between temperature range 120°C to 150°C and starts to flow from the kerogen to the sandstone reservoir.

  • Salt water also migrate into the sandstone reservoir and lie under the oil, in some sedimentary basins or storage beds.

  • When the liquid or gas moves through the pores and spaces of permeable rock results in the formation of oil and gas. Which is collected in the pore spaces under an retentive trap.

Conclusion


It took many-many years to form oil from dead plants and animals with the help of proper temperature, pressure and floating condition. Now we understand, how oil is formed? This natural formation process is very long, that’s why if once oil extinct from earth surface we can’t do any thing to get it back.

Difference between RON95 and RON97


Difference between RON95 and RON97 in Malaysia

Difference between RON95 and RON97
RON95 and RON97
Two grades or types of petrol are most common in Malaysia; RON95 and RON97.


Let understand first the meaning of RON in detail, RON stands for “Research Octane Number”.

Standard measure of a motor or aviation fuel is a RON. If the octane number is the higher, the fuel can withstand more compression before it detonates.

In 1926 American organization Ethyl Corporation developed this rating system and it is developed by Russell Marker.

Russell Marker discovered that knocking of engine or pre-ignition of engine is reduced by branching in hydrocarbons.

When the fuel detonates in the engine combustion chamber before it is expected to knocking of engine happens, this pre-ignition or knocking results in poor performance of motor engine.

A high fuel rating shows that the fuel can withstand high level of compression before detonating.

If there’s a high compression level in fuel, it indicates there will be more power output.

A specific range of octane numbered fuels is considered when motor engine designed by manufacturer.

Normally higher octane fuels like; RON97 are used for the cars with high performance engines, mostly cars with an engine capacity above 2,500cc.

RON95 is used in general motor cars, where output requirement from engine is less.

You should prevent using fuel with less octane number in high performance engine, otherwise it will result in knocking of engine.

High octane number like RON97 will gives a high compression ratio which generates a high horsepower.

You will get same mileage from both type of fuel i.e. mileage depends on your driving skills and road condition not on fuel type.


Also, the price of RON95 is less as compare to RON97.

Check latest petrol price in Malaysia here; RON95 and RON97.


Conclusion


Selection of RON95 and RON97 totally depends on your car engine specification. So, choose the fuel type as suggested by the car manufacturer.

What is crude oil



What is crude oil?


We can define crude oil as a liquid found inside the Earth, which is a combination of hydrocarbons, organic compounds and little amounts of metals. Petroleum is a type of crude oil.

Primary component of crude oil is mostly hydrocarbons, but their constitution in the crude oil can deviate from 50% up to 95%. This is totally depends on the type of crude oil and its extraction process.

Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur like organic compounds mostly are available in between 5% to 10% of the total crude oil.

Copper, nickel, vanadium and iron like metals are available in very less amount i.e. < 1% of the total composition of the crude oil.



How is crude oil formed?

Oil Rig
Oil Rig
Formation of crude oil happens when organic materials are heated and compressed over a very long period of time.

The oil what we take out today comes from the remains of prehistoric algae and zoo-plankton. These organic remains are present in bottom of an Ocean.



With the time these organic material joint or combined with mud. These heavy layers of mud or sediment creates pressure which heats the organic materials.

This process is called as diagenesis.


Extraction of crude oil


Geologists first identifies a part of ocean where they believe oil is present with the help of satellite imagery, gravity meters, and magnetometers. Then they perform drilling to take out the oil. Drilling is the most common method of crude oil extraction.

The first step of the extraction process involves drilling into the ground in the ocean.



Once a even oil flow has been known at a specific depth below the ocean ground a perforating gun is placed down into the well which has chemical charges within it that allow oil to flow through holes to the case.

Once the case is cut properly a tube is run into the hole which allows the oil and gas both to flow up the well.

Tube is sealed by a device called as a packer, which runs along the external side of the tube.

At the last to control the flow of the oil, oil-workers places a part or structure called as Christmas tree.

Oil from oil sands


Oil can also be take out from oil sands, which is also called as tar sands.

These oil sands are; sand or clay mixed with water and bitumen which is a very viscous form of crude oil.

Oil sands has oil with high viscosity so, instead of using drilling method of oil extraction, the crude oil is taken out from oil sands through strip mining.

This process is more expensive compare to the traditional type of oil drilling method.

As oil demand continues to increase it will results in oil reserves to come to end, then these oil sands could provide last feasible method for extracting crude oil from the Earth surface.

Conclusion


Oil is very precious. It took many years to form oil. Now you understood how crude oil is extracted. Conserve oil and use it miserly.

What is meant by oil conservation



What is meant by oil conservation?


The oil conservation in the world day by day becoming very important and hot topic of discussion. Oil is one of the important natural resources on Earth. Oil is extracted from the deep oceans.

Every motor vehicle in the world works through fuel which is extracted from oil. We should conserve oil to get rid of problems in future. We should use it in correct way.

Oil is used in our daily life in foods, cars and many other things. Oil has many benefits. But we also use it in a harmful way, that means additional usage.


Oil
Oil
We should keep oil for generations to come. Environment and life will be better when oil is conserved.

We use oil in many ways. As such, oil is refined and used in food, natural gas is extracted from oil and fuels such as petrol and diesel are extracted from oil. Oil is used as a lubricant in machines.

The demand for petroleum products is increasing at a fast rate. At the current rate of consumption, our known oil reserves will only last 40 - 50 years. This puts enormous pressure on our economic resources and there is an urgent need to conserve petroleum products.

There is a huge scope of petroleum conservation in world, it has technological reforms, financial incentives, policy initiatives and legislative measures to implement conservation.

Transport, industry, domestic and agriculture are the four major sectors that consume petroleum extensively.

How can we conserve oil?


Awareness programs need to be developed for each sector and then wide publicity of measures that will require savings to bring about desired results on oil conservation.

The transport sector is one of the largest consumers of petroleum products, mainly petrol and high speed diesel.

This sector accounts for 60 per cent of petroleum consumption country wise. Road transport alone accounts for about 40 percent of the total oil consumption.

The main petroleum products consumed in the agricultural sector are diesel oil. Oil consumption in the area can be reduced by implementing or using high efficient pumps, by lift irrigation, by improving agricultural machinery, etc.

Regarding the use of petroleum for the production of fertilizers, new schemes based on liquid oil products should be discouraged and based on the use of natural gas or coal, which the country has sufficient resources.

Kerosene and LPG are two major oil products used in the domestic sector for cooking and lighting in urban and semi-urban areas. Since there are no viable alternatives to these fuels and they have to be expanded to rural areas to investigate deforestation, it is imperative that their use be achieved at optimum efficiency levels.

We can conserve oil by following several methods. We should reduce the use of vehicles. Use public transport instead of private vehicles.

Try to use electric vehicles that do not harm the environment. To prevent pollution, plant more and more trees. Check for pollution and mileage in vehicles frequently. In this way, we can conserve oil.


Learn more about on "Tips for Saving Fuel".

Conclusion


The oil conservation is now becoming an urgent requirement of each and every country in the world. Government and people understood, if their is no oil, all of their work will stop. When we conserve oil, we will have a better life and environment.